Go to your local library, look on your computer, anything to help you gather information about your topic. Collect this information on a graphic organizer.
Write your introduction. The introduction should be simple, and state your topic. Try to avoid using "I" statements, especially on a research paper.
Write your body. The body of your essay should have the info you gathered, put into your own words. If you do happen to use the info as it was though, to avoid plagiarism, make sure that you cite your sources. Write the conclusion for your paper. The conclusion should sum up all of the main points of your paper. Revise your paper.
You can always make any piece of writing better. See where you can add more info, check that your spelling and grammar are good, etc. Geography is a subject that requires dedication.
For this, you need to devote at least 45 minutes each day to the subject. Make flashcards, and highlight important terms and definition. Learn why people trust wikiHow. Learn more Identify the subject or research question. Your professor or supervisor may assign you a research question or subject, or you may be able to choose your own.
The subject or question should be very specific and focused. Consider the scope and the limitations of the investigation. Develop strategies for answering the question or exploring the subject. Do you simply need to compare data or will you need to work in the field? For instance, you may need to study the ecology of several locations that are prone to landslides. Obtain the information you need.
You should collect at least 2 kinds of information: primary talking to researchers or interviews with eyewitnesses and secondary statistics, reports, and other published material. Always choose reliable sources for information. A secondary source could be a report on volcanic lava composition. Analyze the data. Depending on your research, you may need to graph data or analyze statistics or observational notes. Evaluate what the data means in terms of your research question or subject.
Is your question answered completely or your subject fully explored?
Look for relationships, patterns, and trends between the issues and ideas you explored. Begin each paragraph with a topic sentence. The first sentence of each paragraph should state what the paragraph is about. The subsequent sentences should explain the topic in more detail and provide evidence.
In this way, you move from general to specific information. Detail your methodology and findings. Explain how you collected data and information for your investigation. List the methods used, like research or lab testing, as well as the sources, such as lab reports or interviews. Tell the audience what you observed or discovered and draw conclusions based on facts. The mean population density was calculated for each set of data.
Provide accurate and specific evidence. Evidential support should be relevant and detailed. Statistics, lab reports, and mathematical conclusions are examples of good sources of evidence. For instance, if writing about volcanic eruptions, provide findings from a lab report that explain the composition of samples taken from a volcanic site or eruption. Include relevant materials or media. A caption should comprise a brief title not on the figure itself and a description of the illustration.
Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used. Data references This journal encourages you to cite underlying or relevant datasets in your manuscript by citing them in your text and including a data reference in your Reference List.
Data references should include the following elements: author name s , dataset title, data repository, version where available , year, and global persistent identifier. Add [dataset] immediately before the reference so we can properly identify it as a data reference. The [dataset] identifier will not appear in your published article. Reference formatting There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission.
References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent.
Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. Video Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article.
This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image.
These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.
Supplementary material Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received Excel or PowerPoint files will appear as such online.
Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version.
Please switch off the 'Track Changes' option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version. Below are a number of ways in which you can associate data with your article or make a statement about the availability of your data when submitting your manuscript.
View All. For Accepted, unpublished papers. Legends and captions are in boldface, in font size 11 pt and in line spacing 1. The main reason of tsunami How we can predict volcanic activity The conflict between human and nature The topography of a river How does soil erosion happen? Aug - OnlineFirst First published: 26 Aug As part of developing a research plan, we recommend that a graduate student meet with the thesis committee early in the process to work out roles and develop publication goals. On Twitter.
If you are sharing data in one of these ways, you are encouraged to cite the data in your manuscript and reference list. Please refer to the "References" section for more information about data citation. For more information on depositing, sharing and using research data and other relevant research materials, visit the research data page.
There are different ways to link your datasets to your article. When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page. In addition, you can link to relevant data or entities through identifiers within the text of your manuscript, using the following format: Database: xxxx e. For more information, visit the Mendeley Data for journals page.
Data statement To foster transparency, we encourage you to state the availability of your data in your submission. This may be a requirement of your funding body or institution. If your data is unavailable to access or unsuitable to post, you will have the opportunity to indicate why during the submission process, for example by stating that the research data is confidential.
The statement will appear with your published article on ScienceDirect. For more information, visit the Data Statement page.